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Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s Pakistan

On the occasion of the Quaid’s birthday, Pakistan Dialogues offers readers a reproduction of extracts and full texts of some of Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s lesser known positions for Pakistan’s regional and international policy. The hope here is for readers of policy and development, especially young Pakistanis, to renew perspective on how Jinnah framed these issues.

Minor punctuation/structural edits have been inserted in italics for ease of readability.


On Foreign Policy
In public radio broadcast to the people of the United States, dated February 1948.

Our foreign policy is one of friendliness and goodwill towards all the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation. We believe in the principle of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world, and in upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter.

During the last five months of its existence, Pakistan has had to face terrible trials and tribulations and to suffer tragedies which are almost without parallel in the history of mankind. We have, however, withstood these calamities with courage and fortitude. Through our perseverance, labour and sacrifice, we will make Pakistan a great and powerful nation. Pakistan has come to stay and no power on earth can destroy it. 

Pakistan Zindabad.

On Palestine
A telegram from M A Jinnah, as Governor General of Pakistan, to US President Truman, dated 9 December 1947.

At this hour when the Muslim world has received a terrible shock owing to the most unfortunate decision of the United Nations Organization to enforce partition of Palestine, I would like to address to you, Mr. President, this personal appeal.

The decision is ultra vires of the United Nations charter and basically wrong and invalid in law.
Morally it is untenable. Political, historically, geographically and practically it would be impossible to enforce partition against the united resistance of the Arabs who have the full sympathy and support of over three hundred million Mussalmans and many non-Muslim countries and not only those who voted against UNO decision.

In the long run it will and must fail. The very people for whose benefit this decision is taken—the Jews, who have already suffered terribly from Nazi persecution—will, I greatly fear, suffer most if this unjust course is pursued. Moreover, the decision presents a great danger to world peace.

May I therefore, at this eleventh hour, appeal to you and through you to the great and powerful American nation, which has always stood for justice, to uphold the rights of the Arab race. The Government and the people of America can yet save this dangerous situation by giving a correct lead and thus avoid the gravest consequences and repercussions.

May I, Mr. President, with your permission, release this telegram to the press.

In a telegram to the King of Yemen, Imam Yahya, dated 24 December 1947.

‘…I thank Your Majesty most sincerely for your message and all the kind sentiments expressed therein.
I fully share Your Majesty’s surprise and shock at the serious lack of judgement shown by the UNO by their unjust decision in respect of Palestine. I once more assure you and our Arab brethren that Pakistan will stand by them and do all that is possible to help and support them in their opposition and the UNO decision which is inherently unjust and outrageous.’

On Afghanistan 
A reply speech to Sardar Najibullah Khan, Special Representative of H.M. the King of Afghanistan, visiting Pakistan, dated 3 December 1947

Your Excellency,
It has given me indeed very great pleasure to welcome you and to receive through you today, the gracious message of good wishes from His Majesty the King of Afghanistan. May I take this opportunity of asking you to convey to your august Sovereign my highest regard and esteem for him, and to the government and the people of Afghanistan most cordial good wishes on behalf of myself, my government and the people of Pakistan. I would also ask Your Excellency to convey my thanks to the Government of Afghanistan for the cordiality, hospitality and friendship that was extended to my personal representative, Nawab Saidullah Khan, during his stay in Kabul.

The government and the people of Pakistan entertain nothing but feelings of warmest friendship towards the Muslim Kingdom of Afghanistan which is our closest neighbor and with whom for many centuries and for many generations the people of Pakistan have had countless religious, cultural and social ties. It is doubtless known to Your Excellency that the people of Pakistan have always admired the spirit of independence of the Afghan nation and its great strength of character.

I desire that the relationship between these two sister nations may be of the greatest and the most lasting friendship, and I hope that the two governments will soon be able to settle and adjust, in a spirit of goodwill for the benefit of both, all those matters which require our immediate attention, and I do trust that the coming negotiations, that may take place, will secure and strengthen all the more the goodwill and friendship between our two countries which already exist.

I cordially welcome you as the First Representative of His Majesty the King of Afghanistan on behalf of our brotherly Islamic neighbor to Pakistan, and I assure you on behalf of my government and myself that we shall extend every assistance, co-operation and good will to you. May your stay in Pakistan be pleasant and happy.

Pakistan Zindabad.

On India
In response to an interview question for the Nueue Zurcher Zeitung asking about the prospect of India and Pakistan resolving outstanding disagreements and differences amicably and peacefully, dated 11 March 1948.

Yes, provided the Indian government will shed its superiority complex and will deal with Pakistan on an equal footing and fully appreciate the realities.

…it is of vital importance to Pakistan and India as independent sovereign states to collaborate in a friendly way…(b)ut this depends entirely on whether Pakistan and India can resolve their own differences, if we can put our house(s) in order internally, then we may be able to play a very great part externally in all international affairs. 


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